1. Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) writes in Iqtida Sirat al-Mustaqeem
explaining this hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), 'So, the more
sincerely one recites this statement (i.e. La ilaha illAllah), the more
deserving he would be of the intercession. However, one who puts his trust in
some fellow creature (for intercession) looking forward to him and fearing him,
would have no share in the intercession.
When one approaches someone for recommending the case of another, he does not
take prior permission to do so. Rather, one does it in the belief that the
person approached, being indebted to him, would consider favorable the
recommendation. However, Allah is above everyone, being the Master and Ruler of
everyone, hence, one cannot intercede with him without His prior leave.
He Himself grants someone this privilege and accepts his intercession. This is
akin to the process of dua (supplication), in that He prompts one to ask
something and then grants the same. This Right is of Allah Alone.
It is worth reflecting that the one taken by someone as his intercessor may
decline to do so or be forbidden by Allah to do so or his request be turned
down. The most exalted human beings are Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi
wa-sallam) and Ibraheem $. Yet,
Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) ceased to supplicate for his dear uncle Abu Talib, not
withstanding his earlier statement that he would seek forgiveness for him unless
forbidden from it.
The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) no doubt, offered funeral prayer for some hypocrites and prayed
for their forgiveness but he was forbidden to do so by Allah, 'And never (O
Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand
at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and died
while they were Fasiqoon (rebellious, - disobedient to Allah and His
Messenger).' [Soorah Tawbah (9): 84]
'Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not
forgiveness for them ... (And even) if you ask seventy times for their
forgiveness ... Allah will not forgive them, because they have disbelieved in
Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad). And Allah guides not those people who are
Fasiqoon (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).' [(9): 80] After this revelation,
the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) remarked, 'Were I to know that they would be forgiven if I had
asked more than seventy times for their forgiveness, I would have done so,'
Subsequently, the following verse was revealed, 'It is equal to them whether you
(Muhammad) ask forgiveness or ask not forgiveness for them. Verily, Allah guides
not the people who are the Fasiqoon (rebellious, disobedient to Allah).' [ (63):
Let us now turn our attention to Prophet Ibraheem's story. He had promised his
father that he would ask for forgiveness for him. However, when Ibrahim realized
that his father was Allah's enemy, he recanted his earlier stance, as the
Qur'aan recounts, 'It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to
ask Allah's Forgiveness for the Mushrikoon (polytheist, idolaters, pagans,
disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah) even though, they be of kin, after it has
become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died
in a state of disbelief). And (Ibraheem's) invoking (of Allah) for his father's
forgiveness was only because of a promise he had made to him (his father). But
when it became clear to him (Ibraheem) that he (his father) is an enemy to
Allah, he distanced himself from him.' [Soorah Tawbah (9): 113-114]' [end quote]
2. At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, The Book of Nawafil, Encouragement to sleep in the
state of purity (1/408-409). Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) has declared its
chain of narrators as ‘good’ (Jayyid). See, Fath al-Baree (11/109)
3. Al-Ihsan fi-Taqreeb Saheeh Ibn Hibban, Kitabut-Taharah (3/328-329). Shaikh
al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth to be authentic (Saheeh). See, Saheeh at-Targheeb
wat-Tarheeb (1/317) and Silsilah Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah.
4. Sunan Abu Dawood, Kitaab al-Adab, Chapter: Sleeping in a state of Purity.
(no. 5032) Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth as authentic (Saheeh)
5. Saheeh Muslim, The Book of Mosque, Chapter: The Excellence of Congregational
prayer and awaiting the prayer (1/460, no. 649)
6. Kitab az-Zuhd, The Book of walking towards prayer and sitting in the mosque,
etc. (no. 420), p. 141-142.
7. Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 6/174-175
8. Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood (1/120, hadeeth no. 618).
9. Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans), vol. 1, book no. 11, Hadeeth no. 624 10.
Al-Musnad (5/262) Shaikh al-Albanee declared this Hadeeth as Hasan. See, Saheeh
at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/269)
11. Sunan Abu Dawood, 2/257, no. 660. Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this
Hadeeth as authentic (Saheeh). See, Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood, 1/130
12. Sunan Abi Dawood, (2/263, no.672), Sunan Ibn Majah (1/180-181, no. 991) and
al-Ihsan fi Taqreeb Saheeh Ibn Hibban, (5/533-534, no. 2160). Hafidh Ibn Hajr
has declared this Hadeeth as, hasan. See, Fathul-Baree (2/213). 13. Saheeh
Muslim (Eng. Trans), book no. 4, Hadeeth no. 1539
14. Saheeh Sunan Ibn Majah, (1/164, hadeeth no. 814).
15. Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this hadeeth as Saheeh (authentic), see,
Saheeh at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/272)
16. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (3/26)
17. Saheeh al-Bukharee (Eng. Trans.), vol. 1, book no. 11, Hadeeth no. 692
18. Musnad Ahmad, (17/153, hadeeth no. 9140)
19. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) Hadeeth no. 1399
20. Majmoo Fatawa wa Maqalaat Mutanawwi li-Shaikh Ibn Baaz (11/403-404).
21. Sunan ad-Darmi, Kitab Fazzail-al-Qur’aan, (/337, no. 3486). Imam Darmi has
declared this narration as, ‘hasan.’ 22. Musnad Ahmad (1/106-107, no. 6605) and
Saheeh al-Jamee (5/174)
23. Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth as hasan. See, Saheeh Sunan
24. Musnad Ahmad (5/136). Hafidh Manzari has declared the chain of narrators of
the this hadeeth as, ‘jayyid.’ See, at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (2/501)
25. Saheeh Bukharee (Eng. Trans.), book no. 24, hadeeth no. 522
26. Fathul-Baree, (3/305)
27. Saheeh Ibn Hibban, (8/246, no. 3467) and Saheeh al-Jamee (2/135). Shaikh
al-Albanee has declared it saheeh (authentic). See, Saheeh at-Targheeb
28. Reported by Ahmad (3/12 and 44) and Ibn Abee Shaibah (3/8) and their isnads
support each other.
29. Musnad Ahmad (7/370)
30. Buloogh al-Amani (9/217). Also, see Tuhfatul-Awadhi (2/67)
31. Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood (2/598, hadeeth no. 2655). Abu Dawood stated that it
is saheeh marfoo. Also see, Musnad Ahmad (2/110, no.754)
32. Musnad Ahmad (3/304). Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth as Saheeh
(authentic). See, Hamish Mishkat al-Masabih (1/497).
33. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) book no. 4, hadeeth no. 2002.
34. See, Sharh Nawawi (6/222)
35. Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth as Saheeh (authentic). See,
Saheeh Sunan Tirmidhee (2/343, hadeeth no. 2161).
36. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.), book no. 31, Hadeeth no. 6168
37. Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth as Hasan. See, Silsilah
Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah (5/446-447, no. 2340).
38. See, Majma az-Zawaaid (10/21). Shaikh al-Albanee has declared this Hadeeth
as hasan. See, Saheeh al-Jamee as-Sagheer (5/23, no. 4987).
39. Faidhul-Qadeer (5/274)
40. Saarim al-Maslool (p. 585)
41. Quoted from Saarim al-Maslool (p. 568)
42. Sharh an-Nawawi (16/93)
43. Saarim al-Maslool (p. 581)
44. Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood (3/859, hadeeth no. 3797) and Saheeh Sunan an-Nisaee
(3/982, hadeeth no. 4412) 45. Agreed upon Hadeeth. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.),
book no. 7, Hadeeth no. 3166
46. Quoted from Sharh an-Nawawi (9/140)
47. Mirqat as-Mafateh (5/608)
48. Sharh an-Nawawi (9/140-141)
49. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.) book no. 7, hadeeth no. 3136
50. Sharh an-Nawa (9/144)
51. Saheeh Bukharee (Eng. Trans.), book no. 24, hadeeth no. 522
52. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.), book no. 8, hadeeth no. 3368
53. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.), book no. 8, hadeeth no. 3366
54. Saheeh Muslim (Eng. Trans.), book no. 8, hadeeth no. 3367
55. See, Sharh an-Nawawi (10/7-8)
56. See, as-Siyaamatus-Sharee’ah fi islaah ar-Ra’ee war-Ra’eeyah, p.163.
57. Quoted from Majma az-Zawaaid (4/313)
58. Tuhfat Al-Ahwadhi (5: 550) and Musnad Ahmad (2/246/254)
59. Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 185
60. Soorah al-Isra (17): 23
61. Sharh Taibi (3/1044)
62. Saheeh Muslim (4/2094, hadeeth no. 2733)
63. Sharh an-Nawawi (17/49). Also, see Sharh at-Taibi (5/1707).
64. Siyar A’lam an-Nubula (2/351)
References of the article: This article is mainly based upon the book, 'Fariston
ka Darood panewale aur Lanat panewale' by Dr. Fazl-e-Ilahi, Riyadh as-Saliheen,
Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Lectures by Shaikh Abdullah al-Farsi and others.