1c. Intellectual Proofs for affirming the Names and Attributes of Allah,
which the Sharee'ah has stated are:
1. This Magnificent creation with their different forms and regulations and
their functioning correctly to achieve the intended purpose. This signifies the
Might of Allah, His Power, Knowledge, Wisdom and Will.
2. Kindness, beneficence, removal of harm and grief all point towards Mercy,
Generosity and Bounteousness (of Allah).
3. Punishment and recompense of the sinful points out the Anger of Allah and His
Hatred for them.
4. Honoring the obedient slave and rewarding them indicates the Pleasure of
Allah and His Love for them.
2. Manhaj of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah concerning the Names and Attributes
The Manhaj (way) of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah from the Salafus-Salih and
those who followed them is to affirm the Names and Attributes of Allah as they
have been mentioned in the Book and the Sunnah, and their Manhaj is built on the
1. They approve the Names and Attributes of Allah as it has been mentioned in
the Book and the Sunnah with their apparent meaning indicated by the words and
they do not interpret it contrary to its apparent meaning nor change its words
or what they indicate.
2. They negate any resemblance between the Attributes of Allah and the creation,
Allah says, 'There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the
All-Seer.' [Soorah ash-Shuraa (42): 11]
3. They do not exceed what has been mentioned in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah in
affirming the Names and Attributes of Allah. So, what Allah and His Messenger
has affirmed, they affirm it and what Allah and His Messenger has denied, they
deny it and matters, in which Allah and His Messenger are silent, they are
silent about it.
4. They believe that the texts mentioning the Names and Attributes of Allah are
Muhkam, whose meaning and explanation is understood, and they are not Mutashabih
(unclear). So, they do not hold back it's meaning, as they have been accused of,
by those who lie against them, or those who do not know their Manhaj from the
5. They do not speak about how the Attributes of Allah are and do not even
research concerning it.
3. Refuting those, who deny all the Attributes of Allah or deny some of them.
Those who deny the Names and Attributes of Allah are of three categories:
1. Jahmiyah: They are the followers of Jahm Ibn Safwan and they deny all the
Names and Attributes of Allah.
2. Mutazilah: They are the followers of Wasil Ibn Ataa, who deserted the circles
of Hasan Basree. They affirm the Names of Allah as if they were just words
without meaning, and they deny all the Attributes of Allah.
3. Ashaairah and Maturidiyah and those who follow them. They affirm the Names of
Allah and some Attributes and deny some. The notion/pretext upon which they have
built their Madhhab is, 'to refrain from any resemblance of Allah to His
Creation.' They claim that sharing of the name, attribute and the meaning
(between the creation and Allah) necessitates likeness in reality and this means
resembling Allah with His Creation in their view. So, they have imposed the
following two matters upon themselves:
a) Making Taweel (false interpretation) of the texts of the Names and Attributes
of Allah from their apparent meaning, like interpreting the Face to mean His
Essence, and His Hands to mean His Generosity.
b) Making Tafweed (leave the meaning to Allah) of the Names and Attributes of
Allah to Him. So, they say, 'Allah alone Knows what it means,' along with their
belief that they are not to be accepted upon their apparent meaning.
The first group known to have denied the Names and Attributes of Allah were some
Arab pagans about whom Allah revealed, 'Thus have We sent you (O Muhammad) to a
community before whom other communities have passed away, in order that you
might recite unto them what We have inspired to you, while they disbelieve in
the Most Beneficent (Allah).' [Soorah Ra'd (13): 30]
The reason behind the revelation of this verse is that when the Quraysh heard
the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) mention (Allah with the Name) Rahman (the Most
Beneficent), they denied it. So, Allah revealed, '…while they disbelieve in the
Most Beneficent (Allah).' Ibn Jareer mentioned that it was during the treaty of Hudaibiyah, when the writer began to put into writing the treaty between the
Quraysh and the Messenger of Allah, he started with, 'Bismillah ar-Rahman
ar-Raheem' (In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful). The
Quraysh objected to it saying, 'We do not know who Rahmaan is.'
Ibn Jareer also reported from Ibn Abbas, 'The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu
alaihi wa-sallam) used to
invoke (Allah) with the words, 'O Rahman, O Raheem.' The Mushrikeen said, 'He
claims to call upon one, but he invokes two.' So, Allah revealed, 'Say (O
Muhammad), 'Invoke Allah or invoke the Most Beneficent (Rahmaan), by whatever
name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.' [Soorah
al-Isra (17): 110]
And Allah said in Soorah Furqan, 'And when it is said to them, 'Prostrate to the
Most Beneficent (Allah)! They say, 'And what is the Most Beneficent?'' [Soorah
al-Furqan (25): 60]
So, these Mushrikeen are the predecessors of the Jahmiyah, Mu'tazilah and
Asha'irah, and all those who deny about Allah what He has affirmed for Himself,
or His Messenger has affirmed for Him from the Names and Attributes of Allah.
What evil predecessors for evil successors…!