They can be rebutted is many different ways:
1. First Approach: Allah, the Exalted, affirmed for Himself Names and
Attributes, and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wa-sallam) too affirmed for Him. So, denying them for Allah
or denying some of them is denying what Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu
alaihi wa-sallam) has affirmed.
This implies contradicting Allah and His Messenger.
2. Second Approach: The existence of some attributes in the creation and
some names being used by them does not imply resemblance between Allah and the
creation. Because the Names and Attributes of Allah are special of Him, and the
Names and Attributes of the creation are particular to them. Just like Allah has
an existence, which does not resemble the existence of the creation, similarly,
He has Names and Attributes that do not resemble the Names and Attributes of the
creation. Likeness in the Name and the general meaning does not necessitate
likeness in reality. Allah has called Himself Aleem (All-Knowing), Haleem
(All-Wise), and He also called some of His slaves Aleem, He said, 'And they gave
him glad tidings of (Aleem) an intelligent son, having knowledge (about Allah
and His religion of True Monotheism).' [Soorah adh-Dhariyat (51): 28] meaning
Ishaaq. And He named the other Haleem, 'So We gave him the glad tidings of (Haleem)
a forbearing boy.' [Soorah as-Saffat (37): 101] meaning Isma'eel. So, One Aleem
is not like the other, similarly, One Haleem is not like the other.
And He called Himself, 'Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer (as-Samee), All-Seer
(al-Baseer).' Similarly, He has named some of His slaves Samee and Baseer. He
said, 'Verily, We have created man from Nutfah drops of mixed semen (discharge
of man and woman), in order to try him, so We made him hearer, seer.' [Soorah
al-Insan (76): 2] So, One Samee is not like the other and One Baseer is not like
And He called Himself ar-Raouf (full of kindness) and ar-Raheem (Most Merciful),
'Verily, Allah is, for mankind, full of Kindness, Most Merciful.' [Soorah
al-Hajj (22): 65] and He called some of His slaves, Rouf and Raheem, He said,
'Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves
(i.e. whom you know well). It grieves him that you should receive any injury or
difficulty. He (Muhammad) is anxious over you (to be rightly guided, to repent
to Allah, and beg Him to pardon and forgive your sins, in order that you may
enter Paradise and be saved from the punishment of the Hell-fire), for the
believers (he is) full of pity, kindness, and merciful..' [Soorah at-Tawbah (9):
Similarly, He described Himself with Attributes, and described His slaves like
that, like His Saying, 'And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.'
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 255] Thus, He described Himself with Knowledge, and
described His slaves with knowledge, 'And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been
given only a little.' [Soorah al-Isra (17): 85] and He said, 'We raise to
degrees whom We please, but over all those endowed with knowledge is the
All-Knowing (Allah).' [Soorah Yusuf (12): 76] and He said, 'those who had been
given (religious) knowledge said...' [Soorah al-Qasas (28): 80]
He described Himself with strength, 'Truly, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty.'
[Soorah al-Hajj (22): 40] and, 'Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of
Power, the Most Strong.' [Soorah adh-Dhariyat (51): 58] and He described His
slaves with power and said, 'Allah is He, Who created you in (a state of)
weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you)
weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills. And it is He, Who is the
All-Knowing, the All-Powerful (i.e. Able to do all things).' [Soorah ar-Rum
(30): 54] and others.
So, it is known that the Names of Allah are specific to Him and befit Him, and
the Names of the creation are specific to them and befit them, and similarity in
name and meaning does not necessitate likeness in reality.
And this is apparent, al-Hamdulillah.
3. Third Approach: One, who does not possess perfect Attributes, does not
deserve to be ilah (deity) and this is why Ibraheem (alaihis-salaam) said, 'Why do you worship
that which hears not, nor sees…' [Soorah Maryam (19): 42] and Allah said in the
refutation of those who worshiped the calf, 'Did they not see that it could
neither speak to them nor guide them to the way?' [Soorah al-A'raaf (7): 148]
4. Fourth Approach: Verily, affirmation of Attributes is perfection, and denying
them is deficiency. So, he who does not possess Attributes is either nonexistent
or imperfect, and Allah is free from it.
5. Fifth Approach: Making Taweel (changing the meaning) of the Attributes from
its apparent meaning has no proof, so it is false. And making Tafweed (leaving
the meaning to Allah) means that Allah has addressed us in the Qur'aan with
something that which we do not understand its meaning and He has asked us to
ponder over the whole Qur'aan, so how can we ponder over it when we do not
understand its meaning?
Thus, it has been proved from the above that it is crucial to affirm the Names
and Attributes of Allah as they are and deny any resemblance to the creation, as
Allah said, 'There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the
All-Seer.' [Soorah ash-Shura (42): 11]
So, He negated for Himself resemblance to anything, and affirmed for Himself
Hearing and Sight. Therefore, it has been proved that affirming the Attributes
(of Allah) does not necessitate resemblance, and it also proves affirming the
Attributes along with negation of resemblance. This is the meaning of the saying
of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah regarding denial and affirmation of the Names and
Attributes 'Affirmation without resemblance and Purification (of Allah from any
defect) without denial.’
Al-Hamdulillah. With this is completed the translation of the first four
additional chapters of Aqeedah at-Tawheed by His Eminence Shaikh Saleh bin
Fawzan bin Abdullah al-Fawzan.