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Where is Allah? Is He over His `Arsh (Throne) or is He everywhere? What is the ruling on one who claims that Allah is everywhere?

Doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah regarding Allah's Attribute of Highness

Q. A questioner from Al-Hawtah asks: What is the doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) regarding Allah's Attribute of `Uluw (Highness)?

A. Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah believe in Allah's Attribute of Highness. They believe that Allah (Glorified be He) rose over His Throne and is high above all His creation.

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states:
So the judgement is only with All‚h, the Most High, the Most Great! , and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. and: Indeed, your Lord is All‚h, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istaw‚) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).

He (Glorified be He) states:
The Most Gracious (All‚h) rose over (Istaw‚) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). and: To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by All‚h unless and until they are followed by good deeds) in addition to other Ayahs (Qur'anic verses) to the same effect.

Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah firmly believe that Allah rose over His Throne and is exalted above His creation.

Alhamdu lillah [All praise is due to Allah], there is no difference of opinion between them in this regard.

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Q. A questioner from Chad asks: Where is Allah? Is He over His `Arsh (Throne) or is He everywhere? What is the ruling on one who claims that Allah is everywhere?

A. Allah (Exalted be He) rose over His `Arsh and is high above His creation, according to Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah. All the messengers (peace be upon them) taught that Allah rose over His `Arsh and is above all the Creation.

Allah (Exalted be He) states:
The Most Gracious (All‚h) rose over (Istaw‚) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). ,

Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (All‚h) ,

To Him ascend (all) the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it (i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by All‚h unless and until they are followed by good deeds) and:

The angels and the RŻh [JibrÓl (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states:
Indeed, your Lord is All‚h, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose over (Istaw‚) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty).

Allah mentioned in seven Ayahs that He (Exalted be He) is over the Throne. He rose over it in a manner befitting His Majesty as He is not like any of His creation in terms of Istiwa ' (Allah's rising over the Throne in a manner that befits Him) or in any of His Attributes.

Allah (Exalted be He) states:
There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.

He (Exalted be He) also:
Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): "He is All‚h, (the) One.
"All‚h-us-Samad (السيد الذي يصمد إليه في الحاجات) [All‚h the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, (He neither eats nor drinks)].
"He begets not, nor was He begotten.
"And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him."

and
Do you know of any who is similar to Him?

This is a rhetorical question which indicates that none is similar or comparable to Him.

One of the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) wanted to set free a bondmaid, so he brought her to the Prophet (peace be upon him). He (peace be upon him) asked her, "Where is Allah?" She said: "In heaven" He asked, "Who am I?" She said, "The Messenger of Allah." So he said, "Free her, for she is a believer." (Related by Muslim in his Sahih book of Hadith). When the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked the bondmaid about Allah, she replied that He is in Heaven, thereupon he (peace be upon him) said, "Free her, for she is a believer."

This confirms the Attribute of Highness and that Allah rose over His `Arsh and above all the creation.

This is the meaning of Allah's statement:
Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (All‚h), will not cause the earth to sink with you, and then it should quake? , Or do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (All‚h), will not send against you a violent whirlwind? Then you shall know how (terrible) has been My Warning.
This is mentioned in Surah Al-Mulk.

Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah, the Sahabah as well as the messengers (peace be upon them) unanimously agreed that Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) is over the Throne.

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) states:
And Fir…aun (Pharaoh) said: "O H‚m‚n! Build me a tower that I may arrive at the ways - The ways of the heavens, and I may look upon the Il‚h (God) of MŻs‚ (Moses)

This indicates that Musa (Moses, peace be upon him) told Pharaoh that Allah is over the Throne and this is why the Pharaoh replied in this manner in the Ayah.

Whoever claims that Allah is everywhere and not above the creation is a Kafir (disbeliever) and belies Allah, His Messenger, and the Ijma` (consensus of scholars) of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah, and is like Jahmiyyah (a deviant Islamic sect denying some Attributes of Allah, claiming they are ascribed to people and cannot be ascribed to Allah), Mu`tazilah (a deviant Islamic sect claiming that those who commit major sins are in a state between belief and disbelief) and the like. They are worse in Kufr (disbelief) as they deny the Names and Attributes of Allah.

Nur' ala Al-Darb Fatwas>Volume 1>Chapter on `Aqidah>Chapter on Allah's Names and Attributes>Doctrine of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah regarding Allah's Attribute of Highness

Reference: qsep.com