Your browser (Internet Explorer 7 or lower) is out of date. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. Learn how to update your browser.

You Are Here: Knowledge Base Aqeedah (Pillars of Faith)

The beliefs of Ahl al-Hadith By: Imaam Abu Bakr al-Ismaa`eeli [295 Hijri]

The Beliefs of the People of Hadeeth

By: Imaam Abu Bakr al-Ismaa`eeli (Died 295 Hijri)

Translated by: Amr Jalal Abualrub

Biography of the author:

His lineage (mostly taken from as-Siyar of ath-Thahabi, 14/117):

            He was Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Isma`eel bin Mahraan an-Naisaaboori, more commonly known as al-Ismaa`eeli


His teachers:

            He narrated from: Is-haaq bin Raahwiyah, Hishaam bin `Ammaar, Harmalah Ibn Yahya, `Eesa bin Zaghba, Muhammad bin Bakkaar, Abee Himmah Muhammad bin Yoosuf al-Zubaidee, Muhammad bin Ram h, Abee Na`eem al-Halabee, Abee Kareeb and others.

His Students:

            Those who narrated from him are: Rafeeqah Ibraaheem bin Abee Taalib, Abu al-`Abbaas as-Surraaj, Ibn ash-Sharqee, Ahmad bin `Ali ar-Raazi, Muhammad bin al-Akhram, Da`laj as-Sijzee, Isma`eel bin Najeed, `Ali bin Hamshaath, and his son, Ahmad bin Muhammad.

Scholars' praise for him:

Al-Haakim said about al-Imaam al-Ismaa`eeli, "Al-Ismaa`eeli was one of his time, and the Shaykh of the Muhadditheen (narrators of Hadeeth) and Fuqahaa' (jurists), and the best of them with regards to leadership, honorability, and generosity." ( Siyaru A`laam an-Nubalaa', 16/294)

As-Sam`aani said about him, "[He is] the Imaam of the people of Jarjaan, and he is the one referred to in matter of Hadeeth and Fiqh— and he is the most notable that is mentioned." (Al-Ansaab 1/139)

Ath-Thahabi said about him, "[He is] the Imaam, the Haafidh (preserver of the Sunnah), the Shaykh ul-Islaam." (Siyaru A`laam an-Nubalaa' 16/292), and he said in other places, "The Imaam, the solid Haafidh , Shaykh ul-Islaam." (Tathkiratu al-Huffaadh 3/947)

As-Safdee said about him, "The Imaam— the Faqeeh, Shafi`ee the Haafidh." (Al-Waafi bil-Waafiyaat 6/216)

Al-Anaabaaki said about him, "The Haafidh— he was an Imaam, he went around the cities and met the Shuyookh." (An-Nujoom az-Zaahirah 4/140)

Ibn Katheer said about him, "The big Haafidh, the explorer, the traveler, he heard much and narrated, and collected and wrote [books], and he benefited much and was excellent, and he good both in criticism and theology." (Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah 11/317)

Ibn `Abdul-Hadi said about him, "The Imaam, the major Haafidh, one of the major scholars— he was the elder of the Shaafi`iyyah, with regards to it." (Tabaqaat `Ulamaa al-Hadeeth 3/140)

Ibn Naasir ad-Deen said about him, "The Imaam— one of the notable preservers of the Sunnah, he was the Shaykh of the collectors of Hadeeth and jurists, and the best of them in honorability and generosity." (Shathraat ath -Thahab 3/72)


The Main Index:

            Ibn Qudaamah, ash-Shareef Abu al-`Abbaas Mas`ood Bin `Abdil-Waa hid Bin Matar al-Haashimee informed us, that Abul-Hasan Ali Bin Muhammad al-Jarjaani informed us, that Abul-Qaasim Hamza Bin Yoosef as-Sahmee informed us, that Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ibraheem al-Ismaa`eeli said:

The Fundamental Beliefs Held by Ahlul-Hadeeth

Know, may Allaah have mercy on us and you that the Math-hab (way; creed; doctrine; ideology) of Ahlul-Hadeeth, the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah is acknowledgment of Allaah, His Angels, His books and His Messengers, and acceptance of what has been spoken of in the book of Allaah, and what been authenticated from the narrations from the Messenger of Allaah ( r).

There is no alteration of that which has been narrated from him and no room for rejection, since they were ordered with following the Book and Sunnah, and they are content with the guidance in them (the Book and Sunnah), witnessing that their Prophet ( r) guides to the Straight Path and being warned about contradicting him that a trial and a painful torment will befall them.

The Statement Concerning Allaah's Names and Attributes

            They believe that Allaah ( U) is called upon by his good names and is attributed with His attributes that He has named and attributed for Himself as well as what His Messenger ( r) attributed him with. 
He created Adam ( u) with his Hand, and His hands are extended and He spends as He likes, without [us] knowing how, and that He ( U) ascended upon the throne and did not mention how his ascension was done.

A Mention of Some of the Specifics of His Lordship

             He is the owner of His creation, and He originated them not because of a need for what He created, and there is no meaning behind His cause of their creation.   He does whatever He wishes and rules as He wants, and it is not asked about what He has done, but the creation is responsible for what they have done.

Affirming Allaah's Asmaa' Al-Husnaa (Good Names) and Sifaatuhu Al-`Ulaa (His Supreme Attributes)

             He is called upon by His names, and He is attributed with His attributes that He named and attributed for Himself and what He has been named and attributed with by His Messenger ( r) and nothing in the earth or heavens makes Him weak.

He is not attributed with a deficiency nor a shameful thing nor a disease, for indeed He ( U) is above all that.

Affirming the Attribute of the Hands of Allaah

             He created Adam ( u) with His hands, and His hands are extended and He spends as He wishes, without any knowledge of how His hands are [like], since the Book of Allaah ( U) did not talk about it with regards to Kayf (Kayf means in this context, the fashion of His hands, but in other contexts it can mean how He does things, as will come later in the treatise inshaAllaah). 

He is not to believed as having (1), limbs, height   width, heaviness,  thinness, or the likes of these that are exampled in the creation; there is nothing like Him, blessed be the face of our Lord, the possessor of Glory and Exaltedness.

They do not believe as the Mu`tazilah (2) and the Khawaarij (3) and other groups from the people of desires believe, that is, that Allaah's names are created (4).

Their Statement Concerning the Attribute of His Face, Hearing, Seeing, Knowledge, Ability and Speech

            They affirm that He has a face, hearing, sight, knowledge, ability, power, speech, and not what the people of deviance from the Mu`tazilah and others say, rather as He ( U) said, {And the Face of your Lord will remain.} [55:27]

 He also said, { He has sent it down with His Knowledge} [4:166], and,

{And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.} [2:255].
In addition He said, "{to Allāh belong all honor, power and glory} [35:10] and
{with power did We construct the heaven.} [51:47],as well as,
{See they not that Allāh, Who created them was mightier in strength than them.} [41:15]. Furthermore, He said, {Verily, Allāh is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.} [51:58].

            So He ( U) is the possessor of knowledge, strength, power, sight, and speech, as He ( I) said,
{in order that you may be brought up under My Eye.} [20:39] and
{And construct the ship under Our Eyes and with Our Revelation} [11:37].  He said,
{so that he may hear the Word of Allāh (the Qur'ān)} [9:6] as well as,
{and to Mūsā (Moses) Allāh spoke directly.} [4:164]. He said,
{Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!" - and it is!} [36:82].

Affirming the Mashee'ah (Will) of Allaah

            And they say as the Muslims say altogether, "Whatever Allaah wills will happen, and what He does not will, will not happen".   He confirmed this by ( U) saying, {And you cannot will unless (it be) that Allāh wills} [81:29]

The Knowledge of Allaah

            They say that there is no way for anyone neither to exceed the knowledge of Allaah, and neither does one's own action or will overcome the Will of Allaah, nor alter the knowledge of Allaah, for He is the knowledgeable and does not become ignorant or forget; He is the able and is not defeated.

The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah

            They say the Qur'an is the speech of Allaah and is not created. Rather no matter how the one who recites it pronounces it, and with what kind utterance, it is preserved in the chests, recited by the tongues, written in the Masaahif (Qur'an books). 

It is not created, and whoever says that the pronunciation of the Qur'an is created (5) then he is intending the Qur'an, and he is saying that the Qur'an is created.

The Actions of the Slaves are Created by Allaah

            They say that there is no real creator except Allaah ( U) and that the gains of the slaves are all a creation by Allaah, and Allaah guides whomsoever He wishes and misguides whomsoever He wishes, and there is no Hujjah (plea) for whom Allaah ( U) has misguided, nor an excuse, as He ( U) said,
{With Allāh is the perfect proof and argument, (i.e. the Oneness of Allāh, the sending of His Messengers and His Holy Books to mankind); had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.} [6:149].

He also said, {As He brought you (into being) in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being (on the Day of Resurrection in two groups, one as a blessed one (believers), and the other as a wretched one (disbelievers)) [7:29].

A group He has guided, and a group deserved to be in error; (because) surely they took the Shayātīn (devils) as Auliyā' (protectors and helpers) instead of Allāh, and think that they are guided.} [7:30].

In addition, He said, {And surely, We have created many of the jinn and mankind for Hell.} [7:179] and

{No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfūz), before We bring it into existence.} [57:22].

The meaning of Nabra'ahaa (bring it into existence), means creating it without any contradiction in language.  He said about the people of Jannah, {All the praises and thanks be to Allāh, Who has guided us to this, and never could we have found guidance, were it not that Allāh had guided us!} [7:43] and

{had Allāh willed, He could have guided all mankind} [13:31], also

{ And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made mankind one Ummah (nation or community (following one religion i.e. Islām)) but they will not cease to disagree. [11:118]
Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy (the follower of truth - Islāmic Monotheism)} [11:119].

Good and Evil are by the Predestination of Allaah


            They say that good and evil and the pleasant and bitter is from the predestination of Allaah ( U), it is past ( Maadhin, or, given its due share in the past), and He has predestined it.  They do not own for themselves neither Dharr (harm) nor Nafa` (gain), except what Allaah wills, and they are in need of Allaah ( U), and there is no richness for them at any time.

Coming Down to as-Samaa' Ad-Dunya (earth)

             He ( U) comes down to this earth, based upon what has come in authentic news from the Messenger of Allaah ( r) (6), without any kind of belief of Kayf in it (7).

The Believers Seeing Their Lord in the End

            They believe in the possibility of the pious slaves seeing Allaah on the Day of Judgment, not in this Dunya, and the reality of it for the one who made that (meaning, here, Eman) a garment for him on the Day of Judgment.  As He said,

{Some faces that Day shall be Nādirah (shining and radiant).   Looking at their Lord (Allāh).} [75:22-3].

He ( U) also said regarding the Kuffaar,

{Nay! Surely, they (evil-doers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day. } [83:15].

So if the all of the believers and nonbelievers alike are not able to see Him, they would all be veiled from seeing Him. That is without the belief of Tajseem (8) in Allaah ( U), and without a specification for Him, rather, they see Him ( U) with their eyes, in a way which He wants, without Kayf.

The Reality of Eman

            They say that Eman (belief) is statement, action (9), and knowledge, and it increases by obedience and decreases by disobedience; whoever obeys more, their Eman increases more than one who does less.

Their Statement Concerning the One who Commits a Major Sin

            They say that if one from Ahlul-Tawheed, who prays to the same Qibla as Muslims, commits a sin or many sins, [be they] minor, [or] major, yet standing upon Tawheed to Allaah and living up to what Allaah has obligated upon them, then they are not charged with infidelity because of that [sin], and they ask for his forgiveness.   He ( U) said,

 {— But He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills—}. [4:48]

The Ruling Behind the One who Purposely Abandons Salat

            They have differed about one who purposefully left the obligatory prayers for a length of time and   without any remorse.  A group made Takfeer on them (10), because of the narration of  the Messenger of Allaah ( r) in which he states,

"Between the slave and Kufr is abandoning the prayer" (Saheeh At-Targheeb Wat-Tarheeb, Hadeeth no. 563 from Ibn Majah),

and, "Whomever abandons the Salat then he has disbelieved" (Saheeh At-Targheeb Wat-Tarheeb , Hadeeth no. 575),

and, "Whomever leaves the Salat, I have freed the protection of Allaah from him" (Saheeh At-Targheeb Wat-Tarheeb, Hadeeth no. 569 from the collection of at -Tabarani), and a group from them interpreted it— and with that whomever leaves it denying it, [is] as Yoosuf `alaihis-salaam said,

{Verily, I have abandoned the religion of a people that believe not in Allāh— } [12:37] He left (11) the denial of Kufr (i.e., left the state of denial in Allaah ( U) that is Kufr)

The Statements of the People of Knowledge Concerning the Difference between Islaam and Eman


            Some of them said that indeed Eman is statement and action, and Islaam is performing what has been ordained upon mankind to do. if he mentioned every name it is connected with the other, so it was said, The Mu'minoon and Muslimoon are single with different meanings were intended that was not meant for the other, and if one would mention both names then it is inclusive and include each other.

            Many of them (12) said that Islaam and Eman are one, because He ( U) said,

{ And whoever chooses a religion other than Islām then it will not be accepted from him} (source).  So if Eman is other than it (meaning Islaam), it is not accepted, and He said,

{ So We brought out from therein the believers. But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one (i.e. Lūt  (Lot) and his two daughters)} [51:36-7].

            Among them are those who said that Islaam is specific to submission to Allaah, obedience to Him and compliance to His Rule in that which he believes in, since He said,

{ The Bedouins say: "We believe." Say: "You believe not but you only say, 'We have surrendered (in Islām),' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts.} [49:14].

And He said,

{They regard as favor to you (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) that they have embraced Islām. Say: "Count not your Islām as a favor upon me. Nay, but Allāh has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith } [49:17]. And this is also a proof to whoever says that they are one.

Shafaa`ah (intercession), the Hawdh (Pool of the Prophet), the Ma`aad (Hereafter), and Accountability

            They also say that Allaah takes out from the fire a people from the people of Tawheed (Ahlul-Tawheed) by the intercession of the intercessors, and that the Shafaa`ah is true, and that the Hawdh is true, and the hereafter is true, and accountability is true.

Leaving Testifying on Behalf of any Muwahhideen (monotheistic believers), that They are in Jannah or Hellfire

            They also do discount any of the people of the [correct] creed as to whether they are in Paradise or Hell, because the knowledge in that is unseen to them; they do not know what one died on, Eman? or Kufr? But they [do] say that if one died on Islaam and abstained from the Major Sins and desires and misdeeds then they are from the people of Paradise, because of His statement ( I),

{Verily, those who believe (in the Oneness of Allāh, and in His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him) including all obligations ordered by Islām) and do righteous good deeds } and they did not have any sins: {they are the best of creatures.  Their reward with their Lord is 'Adn (Eden) Paradise (Gardens of Eternity)} [98:7-8]. 

In addition. whoever the Prophet ( r) testified on their behalf with his spring, and that (the spring) has been authenticated on his behalf, and they testify for him about that (the spring), in accordance to the Messenger of Allaah ( r) and in affirmation of his statement.

The Punishment of the Grave

            They also say that the punishment in the grave is true. Allaah punishes whoever deserves it if He wills, and if He wills he forgives them, because of His statement, { The Fire, they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon. And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): "Cause Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people to enter the severest torment!" } [40:46].

So it is affirmed that what was left in the current life of morning and afternoon, excluding what is between them, until the Day of Judgment comes they are given the severest torment, without any decrease, as was the case in the current life.   He said,

{But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur'ān nor acts on its teachings.) verily, for him is a life of hardship} [20:124], meaning before the passing away of the current life, because of His statement ( U) {and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection. } [20:124].

It explains that the life of hardship comes before the Day of Judgment.  In our observation the Jews, Christians and polytheist are enjoying a   life of ease and well being; it is not known that He wanted the lack of Rizq (livelihood; sustenance; means of living, etc.) to be in this Dunya, [and this is known] because the amount of sustenance that the Mushrikeen posses.  Rather, He wanted this to be after the death, and before the gathering (Hashr).

The Questioning of Munkar and Nakeer

            They also believe in  Munkar and Nakeer based on the news that has been established from the Messenger of Allaah ( r) with the statement of Allaah ( U) {Allāh will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world ( i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allāh Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allāh will cause to go astray those who are Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers), and Allāh does what He wills.} [14:27]. As well as what has been narrated in its explanation from the Prophet (13).


Abandoning Quarreling and Disputing in the Religion

            They see abandoning quarreling and disputing about the Qur'an and other issues, because of His statement, { none disputes in the Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allāh but those who disbelieve.} [40:4], meaning arguing about it as a means of disbelieving in it, and Allaah knows best.

The Caliphate of the Khulafaa' ar-Raashideen

            They affirm the caliphate of Abu Bakr [Ibn Abee Qu haafah] ( t) because the Sahaabah chose him, next the caliphate `Umar [Ibn al-Khattaab] ( t) after Abu Bakr because of Abu Bakr's appointment of him after himself, then the caliphate of `Uthmaan [bin `Affaan] ( t) by consensus of the counsel and the remaining Muslims as well as the order of `Umar, and   the caliphate of `Ali bin Abee Taalib, ( t) based upon the pledge of the ones who saw Badr. In addition, the caliphate of `Ammaar bin Yaasir, and Sahl bin Haneef, and whoever followed them from among the remainder of the companions with what has been mentioned and its virtues.

The Comparison Between the Sahaabah

            They say in comparison of the Sahaabah, may Allaah be pleased with them, as Allaah said, "Verily, Allāh is pleased with those who give you pledge of allegiance under the tree" (Source), and His statement,
{And the foremost to embrace Islām of the Muhājirūn (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansār (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhājirūn) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allāh is well-pleased with them —} [9:100]


Their Statement on Those Who Despise the Companions

            Whoever is angry by their place with Allaah then he is feared for, considering that there is nothing greater than that, because of His statement ( U),
{ Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the Messenger of Allāh. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allāh and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them ( i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurāt (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and then becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allāh has promised those among them who believe ( i.e. all those who follow Islāmic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).} [48:29], so He informed that he made them a source of anger for disbelievers.

            They said regarding their Caliphate, as Allaah ( U) said, {Allāh has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds}, [24:55] so He with His statement, {Those among you}, was admonishing those who are born at the time of the Prophet ( r) with regards to their religion. He said after that, { that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion, that which He has chosen for them ( i.e. Islām). And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they (believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me.}, thereby strengthening the religion with Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthmaan; this is the promise of Allaah in their faith, they invade and are not invaded, and they frighten their enemies but are not frightened by their enemies.

            Allaah also said to the ones who stayed behind in the battle that He assigned them to fight,

{If Allāh brings you back to a party of them (the hypocrites), and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: "Never shall you go out with me, nor fight an enemy with me; you were pleased to sit (inactive) on the first occasion, then you sit (now) with those who lag behind."} [9:83], so when they found the Prophet ( r) asking him for permission to go out to fight the enemy, but he did not allow them.   Allaah ( U) sent the following,
{ Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, "Allow us to follow you," They want to change Allāh's Words. Say: "You shall not follow us; thus Allāh has said beforehand." Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us." Nay, but they understand not except a little.} [48:15], and said to them, {Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him)) to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allāh will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment."} [48:16]

So those who were alive during the time of the Messenger of Allaah ( r) were the ones being admonished with these Ayaat because of their disobedience to him. Some of them were still alive during the time of Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthmaan, may Allaah be pleased with them, and  obeying them would earn for them a reward, and disobeying would earn a great torment.   Our pronouncement regarding their Caliphate may Allaah be pleased with them is from Allaah ( U), , and He did not put in our hearts a grudge against them, so if one of their Caliphate is established, then after that all of the four caliphates were arranged.

Jumu`ah Behind Every Muslim Imaam, Regardless if They are Pious or Tyrannical

            They observe the prayer – Jumu`ah or otherwise – behind every Muslim Imaam, regardless if he is pious or tyrannical, for indeed Allaah ( U) ordered performing Jumu`ah as an absolute obligation, with His knowledge ( I), that some of the leaders that would appear would be a Faajir (immoral) or a Faasiq (sinner), and He did not exclude a time [to do it] other than that time, nor a command to announce a Jumu`ah other than that without a reason.

Jihaad with a Leader Even if They are Tyrannical

            They see the [permissibility] of Jihaad against the Kuffaar alongside leaders, even if they are oppressive, and believe that Du`aa' should be made for them of goodness and that they turn towards justness; they do not accept   the permissibility of making Khurooj (rebellion) against them with the sword, nor fighting to cause tribulation.  They regard the permissibility of fighting the unjust group alongside the just ruler, if they are present and the preconditions are met.

The Land of Islaam

            They see that the land, the land of Islaam is not the land of disbelief as the Mu`tazilah believe, as long as the call for prayer [is present], the administration is clear [on islam],and the people are strengthened by it and are safe.

The Actions of the Slaves Does Not Constitute One's Entrance into Jannah, Except by the Favor of Allaah

            They believe that one is not guareenteed to enter Jannah, even if they did any action, except by the favor of Allaah and his mercy.  He specifies to whom He wishes, for His knowledge of goodness and His accepting obedience is a good plea from Him, and not a pardon, as Allaah said,
{And had it not been for the Grace of Allāh and His Mercy on you, not one of you would ever have been pure from sins. But Allāh purifies (guides to Islām) whom He wills} [24:21],
{Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allāh upon you, you would have followed Shaitān (Satan), save a few of you.} [4:83], {But Allāh chooses for His Mercy whom He wills.} [2:105]

Allaah is the ar-Razzaaq (Provider of Sustenance)

             Allaah ( U) provides sustenance for every living creation, nourishment that by it, life remains sustained.   Allaah provides sustenance to the creation that remain [alive], and He is the one who provided for mankind, be it from Halaal or Haraam.   Likewise He provides the adornments and what is used to gain livelihood.

Allaah is the Creator of the Shayaateen (devils) and Their Whispers


            They believe that Allaah ( U) created the Shayaateen that whisper to the offspring of Adam, that they delude and deceive them, and that the Shaytaan interferes with mankind. (14)

Magic and Magicians

            In this life there is Magic and Magicians and that Magic, and using it, is Kufr for the one using it, believing in it, being someone who brings gain and loss without the permission of Allaah.

Avoiding the Mubtadi` (innovator; heretic; heresiarch)

            They believe that Bid`ah should be avoided, as well as sins, pride, arrogance, vainglory, treachery, corruption, and slandering.  They believe that one should leave off of bringing harm to people and should leave al-Gheebah (backbiting), except for the one who openly does Bid`ah and calls to it; talking about him is not backbiting to them.

Learn Knowledge

            They believe that knowledge should be sought from it most likely places. Seriousness is taken in learning the Qur'an and its sciences and explanation, listening to the Sunan (or, Ahadeeth) of the Messenger ( r), collection thereof and understanding them, and seeking the Aathaar (Athar can sometimes mean a Hadeeth, but is most likely used for a statement of a companion or from the two generations after them).

Refraining from [talking evil of] the Sahaabah


            They also refrain from backbiting the Sahaabah and to ascribe evils upon them.  They entrust what has happened between them, and its interpretation, to Allaah ( U).

The Need of the Jamaa`ah (group)

            And the need of the Jamaa`ah, and virtue while eating, drinking and dressing, and putting effort in doing good, and ordering with good and forbidding evil (Amr bil-Ma`roof wan-Nahi `an al-Munkar), and avoiding the Jaahileen (ignorant people) until the truth is taught and clarified to them, and then after that comes objections and penalties, after the clarification, and then establishing forgiveness between them and from them.

The Necessity and Need of the Madh-hab of Ahlul-Hadeeth, the Firqah an-Naajiyah (saved sect)

            This is the foundation of the religion and Math-hab, [this is] the beliefs of the people of Hadeeth, those whom no innovation disgraced them, nor did any tribulation delude them.  They did not become soft and hasten to any action in Islaam that is Makrooh (disliked), and they did not separate from this way.

            And know that Allaah ( U) promised in His book His love and Forgiveness to those who follow His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, and He made them the saved sect and the group that follows [Him].   He ( U) said to whomever says that he loves Allaah ( U) {Say (O Muhammad (peace be upon him) to mankind): "If you (really) love Allāh then follow me ( i.e. accept Islāmic Monotheism, follow the Qur'ān and the Sunnah), Allāh will love you and forgive you your sins.} [3:31].

            May Allaah benefit us and you with knowledge and preserve us through Taqwaa from deviance and heresy, by His blessing and mercy.



1)      These terms are not from among the known terms to Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah from among the Salaf (pious predecessors) of this nation, rather, it is from the innovated terms of the heretics, and expressing the truth with the Islaamic terms is the path of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. So it is not needed for the seeker of the truth to pay attention to these types of terms and reliance upon them, and the Imaam, may Allaah have mercy upon him, the author, was not free from using these words.   Indeed Allaah ( I), is attributed with the complete attributes and is described with the exalted descriptions.   So regardless of the matter, the falsehood is rejected from the one who says it, regardless of whom it may be. The Salafi rule, regarding matters like this, is that it is not permissible to reject or affirm except after elaboration and clarification of what was intended by its saying, and upon the author was to explain the rejection, other than [as what is known is that] He wanted by this rejection to close the path for the Mu`attilah (those who reject the meanings of Allaah's attributes), so that they do not have an opportunity to accuse the Ahlul-Hadeeth with Tashbeeh (likening Allaah to His creation). But if he, may Allaah have mercy upon him, held off from mentioning these terms it would have been helpful.

2)      The Mu`tazilah: a Kalaami (philosophical) group that appeared in the beginning of the second century Hijri.  It began in the first Abbasid Caliphate, and its name refers to two incidents that occurred.   The first was the abandonment (I`tizaal) of its Imaam, Waasil bin `Ataa', from the audience of al-Hasan al-Basree and the second is because of the statement of Waa sil that the one who does a major sin is neither a disbeliever nor a believer, rather, he is in a place in between the two.  When Waasil isolated himself from the sittings of al- Hasan and `Amr bin `Ubaid sat with Waasil, their followers were called the Mu`tazilah.  This group relies upon `Aql (logic) and were extreme in that and used it as precedence over Naql (the authentic reports).

3)      The Khawaarij: Plural for Khaarijah (rebel), meaning a rebellious group.  They became known by this term because they rebelled against `Ali, may Allaah be pleased with him, and those who were with him in the battle of Safeen.  The Khawaarij have split into many groups, but are unified by their Takfeer of `Uthmaan and `Ali, the people of the camel and whomever is in agreement with the leadership and seeks to rectify the leaderships or either of them, as well as Takfeer the one who does a Kabeerah (Major sin), look to al-Milal wan-Nihal 1/114, al-Farq Bayn al-Firaq 72-3, Maqaalaat al-Islaamiyyeen 1/167, and Majmoo` al-Fatawa 3/279.

4)      This is from the foolishness of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu`tazilah and those who follow them.  This is based upon their statement about the Qur'an being created., Ad-Daarimee said in ar-Radd `Alaa al-Mareesi, "And al-Mareesi had a creed regarding the names of Allaah which was like his creed regarding the Qur'an; the Qur'an according to him was created, and was from the statements of man, and that Allaah did not speak a word thereof, according to him, and likewise his creed regarding the Asmaa' of Allaah, it is from the creation of mankind." Until he (ad-Daarimee) said, "So this which he called to is one the big fundamentals of the Jahmiyyah, that with it their tribulation was built upon, and what their misguidance was founded upon, and wronged many fools with this." And their doubt is, "That if they affirm for Allaah ninety-nine names that means that they are affirming ninety-nine gods", look to Sharh Usool al-I`tiqaad 2/215.   A group from among the Salaf  have made Takfeer of them.   Is-haaq Ibn Raahwiyah said, "And they – the Jahmiyyah – arrived to the point that Allaah's names are created— and this is clear Kufr."  Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said, "Whomever claims that the names of Allaah are created has committed Kufr." (Sharh Usool al-I`tiqaad 2/214).   Khalaf bin Hishaam al-Maqree said, "Whoever said that the names of Allaah are created then his disbelief is clearer to me than this Sun." ( Sharh Usool al-I`tiqaad 2/207).

5)      Many of the people of desires claimed that Imaam al-Bukhari said, "My Lafdh (pronunciation) of the Qur'an is created", but after analysis, it is clear that alleging this statement to Imaam al-Bukhari is a falsehood alleged against him, may Allaah have mercy upon him, and he is free from such statements.   Nasr bin Muhammad said, "I heard Muhammad bin Isma`eel al-Bukhari said, 'Whoever claims that I said that my pronunciation of the Qur'an is created – is a liar, for I did not say that." ( Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah 1/277, Siyaru A`laam an-Nubalaa' 12/457).   Abu `Amr and al-Khaffaaf said, "I came to al-Bukhari and debated with him regarding Hadeeth until I gave up and I said, 'O Abu `Abdillaah! Here is one who says that you said this statement.' So he said, 'O Abu `Amr! Memorize what I am saying to you: Whoever from Naisaaboor, Qooms, ar-Rayy, Hama thaan, Halwaan, Baghdaad, Koofa, al-Basra, Makkah, and al-Madeenah claims that I said that my pronunciation of the Qur'an is created then he is a Liar, for I did not say that, I merely said that the actions of the slaves are created.'" ( Taareekh Baghdaad 2/32, Muqaddamat Fat-h al-Baari 492, Siyaru A`laam an-Nubalaa' 12/457-8)

6)      In the `Aqeedah of the Salaf, the As­-­haab al-Hadeeth, 'based upon what has been authentically attributed to the prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and Allaah ( U) said, {Do they then wait for anything other than that Allāh should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and the angels?} [2:210] . And He said, {And your Lord comes with the angels in rows.} [89:22]. And we believe in that, all of it, based upon what has come to us.'

7)      In the creed of the Salaf, the people of Hadeeth, 'without Kayf, because if He ( I), wanted to explain to us how, He would have done so.  So we end where He has ruled, and we stay away from likening Allaah to His creation, since we were ordered with that in His statement, {He (Allāh) is the one Who sent down upon you the Book (Qur'ān), among them are verses that are clear, they are the foundations of the book.   As well as others that are Mutashābih (unclear).  And as for those who have in their hearts a deviance, then they follow that which is unclear from it (The Qur'ān), seeking tribulation and interpretation.   And none knows its interpretation except Allāh.  And those who are firm in knowledge say, 'We believe in it, all is from our Lord. And none remember except those with intellect.'} [3:7]'

8)      At-Tajseem is an innovated term that the Ahl al-Kalaam invented, for it was not mentioned in the Book, nor the Sunnah, nor did any of the companions or the Taabi`een know of it, nor any of the Imaams of the Religion.   So because of that, it is not permissible to mention it or affirm it, for Allaah is not ascribed except with that which He ascribes to Himself, or what His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, ascribed to him, be it a negation or an affirmation.

9)      Action is two parts: Action of the Heart, and it is sincerity and intention, and the actions of the limbs, and the tongue is included in that.

10)  Among them are `Umar bin al-Khattaab, Mu`aath Ibn Jabal, Ibn Mas`ood, Ibn `Abbaas, Jaabir bin `Abdullaah, Abu ad-Dardaa', may Allaah be pleased with all of them.  From amongst the Taabi`een are: Ibraheem an-Nakha`ee, `Abdullaah bin al-Mubaarak, Ayyoob as-Sakhtiaani, Is-haaq bin Raahwiyah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Abu Bakr Ibn Abee Shayba, and other than them, may Allaah have mercy upon them all. (look to al-Mahlaa of Ibn Hazm 2/242, Ma`aalim as-Sunan of al-Khattaabi 5/58, and Kitaab as-Salat of Ibn al-Qayyim, p. 37

11)  It is well-known that Prophet Yoosuf, peace be upon him, was not deceived by the way of disbelief, but rather he avoided disbelief as a way of denying it, and it is known that leaving something does not necessarily mean that he fell into it first.

12)  Among them is Muhammad bin Nasr al-Maroozi, Sufyaan ath-Thawree, al-Bukhari, al-Mazanee, and Ibn `Abdul-Barr, look to Jaami` al-`Uloom wal-Hikam p. 170, and that has been narrated by ash-Shafi`ee, look to Fat-h al-Baari 1/114-5.

13)  The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said in explanation of this Ayah, "The Muslim, if he is asked in the grave, he testifies that Laa Ilaaha Illa Allaah, Muhammadun Rasoolullaah, that is Allaah's statement, {Allāh will make firm those who have believed with the firm statement both in the Dunyā (current life) and the hereafter—}" collected by al-Bukhari.

14)  As Allaah ( I), said, {Those who eat Ribā (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitān (Satan) leading him to insanity—} [2:275]