Your browser (Internet Explorer 7 or lower) is out of date. It has known security flaws and may not display all features of this and other websites. Learn how to update your browser.

X
You Are Here: Knowledge Base Sects, Groups and Refutations Asharis

The word Ayd, 'With power did We construct the heaven' - is derived from a different word that means strength, and has nothing to do with the plural form of

Permanent Committee Fatwas>Group 2>Volume 2: `Aqidah>Ta'wil of the Attributes of Allah>The meaning of Allah's Attributes

Fatwa no. 11865

Q: Do all the Attributes related to Al-Dhat (Essence of Allah) mentioned in many Nusus (Islamic texts from the Qur‘an or the Sunnah) have the same meaning or do they have different meanings according to the context in which they are mentioned? We hope you will provide us with information on what the following Attributes of Al-Dhat mean in each context:

a) the word "Al-Yad" i.e. hand: What does it mean in each of the following Nusus: Say "In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures of each and everything)? , Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): "All the bounty is in the Hand of All‚h , The Hand of Allah is with the majority , in another Hadith: The Hand of Allah is over the majority. and in an Ayah (Qur'anic verse): The Hand of All‚h is over their hands. What does the use of "Ayd" (i.e. the plural form of "Yad") mean?

(b) The word "Al-`Ayn" i.e. eye: What does it mean in each of the following Nusus: "And construct the ship under Our Eyes , So wait patiently (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes , And I endued you with love from Me, in order that you may be brought up under My Eye. ? What is the proof that Allah (Exalted be He) has Eyes?

(c) The word "Wajh" i.e. face: What does it mean in each of the following Nusus: so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of All‚h (and He is High above, over His Throne). , when you spend not except seeking All‚h‘s Countenance.

We feed you seeking All‚h‘s Countenance only. , And the Face of your Lord full of Majesty and Honour will remain forever. ?

It would be useful if you provide us in your answer to these questions with references from which we can obtain further useful information.

A: The word "Yadd" in the mentioned Nusus of section (a) refers to one meaning, that is, confirming Allah's Attribute of having a Hand. However, this Hand befits Allah's Majesty with no Tashbih (comparison) or Tamthil (likening Allah's Attributes to those of His Creation) to the hands of His Creation and with no Tahrif (distortion of the meaning) or Ta`til (denial of Allah's Attributes). Just as Allah (Exalted be He) has a Dhat (Essence) which is different from those of His Servants, He has Attributes which are also different from those of His Servants. There are many other Nusus that support the ones that were mentioned in confirming Allah's Attribute of having a Hand. They all mention the word "hand" in singular, dual, and plural forms. We have to believe in their surface meaning as mentioned and leave their interpretation to Allah (Exalted be He) to be acting according to the Nusus of the Qur'an, the Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet), and the views of the Salaf (righteous predecessors).

As for the word "Ayd" in the Saying of Allah (Exalted be He): With power did We construct the heaven . Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof.

it is derived from a different word that means strength. In Arabic the word "Ayyada" means supported and provided others with strength. It has nothing to do with the plural form of "Yad" (i.e. which means hands). Hence, this Ayah is not one of Ayat-ul-Sifat (Qur‘anic verses including Allah's Attributes) on which scholars have differed; some confirming it while others interpreting it. In fact, describing Allah (Exalted be He) as having strength is beyond dispute.

The meaning of each of these Nusus differs according to the context and the evidence mentioned in the Nusus. Allah's Saying: Say "In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures of each and everything)? indicates that Allah (Exalted be He) has absolute power because the sovereignty of everything is in His Hand according to the context of the Ayahs. His Saying: Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم): "All the bounty is in the Hand of All‚h indicates that all blessings and bounties belong to Allah Alone. The Hadith: The Hand of Allah is over the majority urges the believers to unite and love each other

and involves a promise that Allah (Exalted be He) will grant the believers support and triumph over others if they unite to defend Al-Haqq (the Truth). Allah's Saying: The Hand of All‚h is over their hands. refers to the Companions' pledge of allegiance to the Messenger (peace be upon him). Allah (Exalted be He) regards this pledge of allegiance given to His Messenger as a pledge of allegiance that is given to Him (Exalted be He). This, however, does not contradict the fact that Allah (Exalted be He) has a Hand that befits Him and that those who gave their pledge of allegiance to His Messenger (peace be upon him) have hands that befit them.

(b) The word "`Ayn" (singular of "A`yun" i.e. eyes) in the mentioned texts in section (b) confirms Allah's Attribute of having Eyes in a way that befits His Majesty without Tashbih or Tamthil to the eyes of His Creation and without Tahrif. The context of speech has no effect on the meaning of this word. In fact, it affects the meaning of the whole sentence in which the word occurs. The meaning of these sentences is as follows:

First, Allah (Exalted be He) orders Nuh (Noah - peace be upon him) to make the ship and he will be under Allah's Protection.

Second, Allah (Exalted be He) orders Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to endure the harm inflicted upon him by his people until He judges between them with His Justice and He will watch, protect, and save him.

Third, Allah (Exalted be He) tells Musa (Moses - peace be upon him) that He blesses him once more by revealing to his mother what to do so her son Musa will be brought up under His Protection (Exalted be He). It also indicates that Allah (Exalted be He) has Eyes i.e. "Our Eyes" as in the Ayah mentioned in the question. In Arabic the word "`Ayn" is used in the plural or dual form when added to a plural or dual pronoun, as in the Saying of Allah (Exalted be He): If you two (wives of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم : …Aishah and Hafsah رضي الله عنهما) turn in repentance to All‚h, (it will be better for you), your hearts are indeed so inclined (to oppose what the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم likes) Another Hadith that indicates that Allah has Eyes is the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) about Allah (Exalted be He) and Al-Masih-ul-Dajjal (the Antichrist); it says that Al-Dajjal is one-eyed while Allah (Exalted be He) is not. Scholars of the Sunnah deduced from this Hadith that Allah (Glorified be He) has Eyes.

(c) The word "Wajahu-Allah" (i.e. the face of Allah) in the first sentence refers to the Qiblah (direction faced for Prayer towards the Ka`bah) according to Mujahid and Al-Shafi`y (may Allah be merciful with them). The implication of words depends upon the context in which they occur and upon the surrounding evidence. The context and evidence here indicate that the meaning of the word "Wajh" in this sentence means the Qiblah according to the Saying of Allah (Exalted be He): And to All‚h belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn (yourselves or your faces) there is the Face of All‚h (and He is High above, over His Throne). In this Ayah, Allah (Exalted be He) mentions the directions and places towards which people turn their faces. This Ayah is similar in meaning to the following one: For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So the Ayah is not one of Ayat-ul-Sifat on which scholars have varied between a group confirming them and a group denying them. As for the word "Wajh" in the other sentences in the question, they indicate confirmation of Allah's Attribute of having a Face in a way that befits His Majesty (Glorified be He); because this is the basic meaning and there is nothing that changes it. However, this does not mean that Allah's Face is similar to the faces of His Creation; because each has a face that befits them.


Reference: qsep.com